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The four proofs in the Din and its constituents

December 5, 2012

By Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi

And in this way, the four proofs in the Shari’ah were given rise to from Allah’s Messenger’s (Allah bless him and grant him peace) connections. The various masa’il in the Shari’ah find their source from here:

  1. The Book of Allah (the Qur’an),
  2. The Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace),
  3. Ijma’ of the Ummah and
  4. The Ijtihad of the Mujtahid.

The object is that all the branches of the din and all its proofs, spring forth and begin from Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). Their various Shar’i terms and titles were formulated later on, when they were systematically codified and their various laws and regulations were compiled from the teachings of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). But, there actual existence was from before in the being of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). It is for this reason that all these branches of din, like fiqh, tasawwuf, hadith, tafsir, riwayah, dirayah, haqa’iq, ‘usul, hikmah, kalam, politics, etc. fall within the scope and definition of Sunnah. The ‘ulama of Deoband have extracted all these from the various books and made it a part of their way and ideology. They have all been made the constituents of their maslak (way). Then, owing to in-depth research into all these various branches of the din, which in turn gave rise to the specialities and expertise in these fields, specific levels and stages of personalities were formulated which were entitled with the appropriate labels, like mutakallimin, fuqaha, sufiya, muhaddithin, mujtahiddin, ‘usuliyin, urafa, hukama, khulafa’, etc.

Then in each of these various ‘arts’ there were created ‘ulama who were experts and perfectionists in their specific field. They threw themselves into full gear in perfecting these particular fields of study. It was as though they and their field of study became one and the same. They became virtual masters in their fields. They were called Amir ‘l-Mu’minin (commander of the believers) and ‘Ul ‘l-‘Amr (those in authority) of their specialities. They were known as  imams and mujtahidin.  For example, the imams of ijtihad, Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafi’i, etc. The imams of hadith, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, etc. imams of tasawwuf, Junayd, Shibli, Ma’ruf, Bayazid, etc. imams of dirayah and tafaqquh, Abu Yusuf, Muhammad Bin Hasan Muzni, Ibn Rajab, etc. imams of hikmah and haqa’iq, Razi, Ghazzali, Ibn Arabi, etc. imams of kalam, Abu ‘l-Hasan Ash’ari, Abu Mansur Maturidi, etc. imams of ‘usul,  Fakhr al-Islam Bazdawi, ‘Allamah Dabusi, etc.

People such as the above are examples of those who excelled in their particular fields of study and it is through their efforts and medium that these branches of din have reached us.

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